[SCItalk] A conserved role for reactive oxygen species during early embryonic development and appendage regeneration
Division of Cell Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The University of Manchester, UK
We are investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for scar free wound healing and tissue regeneration in frog embryos and tadpoles. We have shown that tadpole tail amputation induces a sustained production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is necessary for tail regeneration. When ROS production following tail amputation is inhibited, both cell proliferation and growth factor signaling fail to occur normally. Intriguingly, we have found that fertilization also induces a dramatic increase in ROS production, which is also sustained throughout early embryogenesis. Indeed, if we inhibit or attenuate ROS production following fertilization, cell cycle progression and growth factor signaling are also inhibited or attenuated, respectively. Thus, we find many remarkable parallels in the induction, maintenance and roles for ROS during tissue regeneration and those following fertilization and during embryogenesis. Indeed, both injury and fertilization seem to set in motion a similar series of events, and as such, we have begun to think of fertilization as an injury, which induces development, in much the same way that injury induces a regenerative response in post-embryonic stages. Thus, we postulate that a successful regenerative response is dependent on a return to an embryonic-like state of cellular oxidation, which facilitates cell cycle progression and growth factor signaling.
Enrique is the Healing Foundation Professor of Tissue Regeneration at the University of Manchester. His research interests are focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for tissue formation, repair and regeneration in amphibians and fish. His lab is also investigating the mechanisms used by embryos to heal wounds without scars. It is hoped that these studies will help pave the way toward the development of novel therapies, which will enable humans to heal and regenerate tissues better.
Host: Artur Llobet - Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology group