Tumor growth is typically dependent on angiogenesis, which can be inhibited with antiangiogenic therapies, in order to impede tumor nurture and growth. Indeed, several angiogenesis inhibitors have proven to be a successful strategy in the treatment of various cancers increasing patient survival. This therapeutic strategy has provided clinical benefit in several solid tumor types, and Bevacizumab (monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A 165) remains approved for colorectal, renal, nonsquamous/non–small-cell lung cancer, and glioblastoma. Small-molecule inhibitor data are less mature, but similar observations have been made regarding Sorafenib and Sunitinib, promoting investigation into potential mechanisms of escape from anti-VEGF therapy. But there is still a need for novel cancer therapies, especially for antiangiogenic resistant tumors.
Furthermore, there are still no biomarkers in routine clinical use in antiangiogenic therapies. Particularly in the past decade the methods used in prognosis and prediction of response have not advanced in any significant way. Thus, nowadays patients continue to be exposed to potentially toxic therapies with no possibility of prediction of response probability.
Therefore it will be necessary to identify possible biomarkers in RCC. We focus on recent findings in our understanding of the molecular signature of RCC, and the potential for such knowledge to provide novel markers and therapeutic targets.